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Brain Specialist

Centre of Excellence
The Brain

The Brain is one of the most principal organs of the body. It is responsible for all the actions and thoughts taking place in our body. Together, the brain and the spinal cord make up the Central Nervous System, or CNS.

Weighing close to 3 pounds in the average adult, it is a complex organ made up of over 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections, called synapses. It is divided into three parts – the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.

The cerebrum is further divided into the left and the right hemispheres. Each of the cerebral hemispheres comprises of 4 lobes – frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital.

Functions of the Brain

The brain is responsible for all actions, thoughts, reactions of our body. It receives information through the five senses - sight, smell, touch, taste, hearing. It also receives inputs including touch, vibration, pain and temperature from the rest of the body. It interprets and assembles these messages in a way that is understandable, and stores the information in the memory.

The most common brain functions are:

  • Processing sensory information
  • Thinking, learning, remembering and reasoning
  • Regulating blood pressure, heartbeat, and breathing
  • Controls the secretion, synthesizing and releasing the hormones
  • Production and coordination of miscellaneous body movements
  • Fight or Flight response
Brain Diseases

The Brain is the body’s central organ. Like is the case with all other organs, even the brain may sometimes get damaged. Such damage affects the necessary functions that the brain controls, and also results in Brain Diseases. Brain Diseases occur in different forms, such as Infections, trauma, stroke, seizures, tumors, etc.

Brain diseases caused by Infections are:

  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Brain abscess

Brain diseases caused by Trauma are:

  • Concussion
  • Traumatic brain injury

Brain diseases caused by Tumors are:

  • Brain Tumor
  • Glioblastoma
  • Hydrocephalus & Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

Brain diseases caused by Seizures/Stroke:

  • Epilepsy

Brain diseases caused by Vascular (blood vessel) conditions are:

  • Stroke, Ischemic Stroke & Heamorrhagic Stroke
  • Brain Aneurysm
  • Subdural & Epidural Hematoma

Brain Diseases caused by Neurodegenerative conditions are:

  • Dementia - Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
Common Symptoms of Brain Diseases:

Brain diseases often go undiagnosed till they have developed to later stages, and this puts the body and life of individuals at immense risk. To avoid the risk, being mindful of the symptoms is necessary. Some of them are –

  • nausea & vomiting
  • speech difficulty
  • numbness
  • headaches
  • paralysis
  • memory loss
  • problems with concentration
  • fever
  • unconsciousness
  • irregular breathing
Diagnosis of Brain Diseases:

To begin the diagnosis, the first factor is the history and physical exam, with emphasis on the neurological exam. It includes monitoring the motor, sensory, reflex and thinking capabilities. The results of this exam determines whether further tests are required.

Other secondary tests include:

  • Biopsy
  • Diagnostic testing (EEG)
  • Imaging tests (CT, MRI and PET scans)
  • Laboratory tests (Blood, urine, stool or spinal fluid testing; Genetic testing)
  • Mental function tests

The treatments used to cure or control the development of brain diseases vary with accordance to the causative factors. Common treatments include:

  • Surgery
  • Psychological / Psychiatric Counselling
  • Physical, Speech & Language, Occupational therapy
  • Medications

Brain Tumor refers to any abnormal growth of tissue that occurs within the brain. These are dangerous, and can be either cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). They are usually classified into Primary and Seconday Brain Tumors.

  • Primary brain tumors - tumor which begins in the brain, is very dangerous and can either be malignant or benign
  • Secondary brain tumours – tumor that develops in some other part of the body and spreads to the brain

Brain tumor has no specific causes, and can occur in people of any age group. The symptoms of Brain Tumor vary depending on the size, type and location of the tumor. Some common symptoms are:

  • Headache
  • Seizures
  • Vomiting
  • Numbness or tingling in arms
  • Personality & Behavior changes
  • Problems related to hearing, speech, vision
  • Difficulty balancing while moving

The treatment for tumor also depends on multiple factors, like the size of the tumor, one’s age, and their overall health. The primary treatment is through surgery. Other treatments include chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.


Surgical removal of small and easy to separate brain tumors is possible. Other brain tumors that cannot be separated from surrounding tissue, or are located near sensitive areas of the brain make surgery risky. In these situations, the doctor removes as much of the tumor as is safe.

The primary surgery to treat Brain tumor is called Craniotomy, where a part of the bone from the skull is removed to expose the brain, after which the tumor is removed. This procedure, however, is risky. There is a high possibility of paralysis after the surgery.

To avoid such risks, an altered version of the surgery, where the patient is awake while being operated, known as Awake Craniotomy (awake brain surgery) is performed. While this surgery is being performed, the surgeon usually asks questions to monitor the patient’s brain activity.


Uses drugs to kill tumor cells - can be taken orally (in pill form), or injected into a vein (intravenously).

Radiation therapy:

Uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays or protons to kill tumor cells. Radiation can come from a machine outside the body (external beam), or can be placed inside the body, close to the brain tumor (brachytherapy).

A brain aneurysm refers to a bulge or ballooning that occurs in a blood vessel inside the brain. It can leak, or rupture, causing bleeding in the brain. This is called Haemorrhagic stroke. A ruptured brain aneurysm located in the space between the brain and the thin tissues covering it is called Subarachnoid Haemorrhage. Ruptured aneurysms require immediate treatment, as they can quickly become life-threatening, leading to Brain Haemorrhage, paralysis, or a coma.

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm:

  • sudden, severe headache
  • stiff neck
  • blurred or double vision
  • a drooping eyelid
  • nausea & vomiting
  • sensitivity to light

Symptoms of an unruptured aneurysm:

A small, unruptured aneurysm produces no visible symptoms. A larger unruptured aneurysm may put pressure on brain tissues and nerves, causing-

  • pain above & behind an eye
  • a dilated pupil
  • change in vision, or double vision
  • numbness in one side of the face

There are mainly two types of procedures to treat Brain Aneurysms. Open Surgical Clipping, and Coiling –

Open Surgical Clipping:

It is a procedure to seal the aneurysm which involves locating the blood vessel that feeds the aneurysm, and then closing it off by inserting a metal clip on the neck of the aneurysm. This stops the blood flow into the aneurysm, thus obliterating it.


It is a procedure performed to block the blood flow into the aneurysm by inserting a coil. It is a minimally invasive surgery, meaning an incision in the skull is not required. Instead, a catheter is used to reach the aneurysm in the brain through the groin. The coil induces clotting, thus preventing blood flow into the aneurysm.

Flow Diverter Stent:

Coiling may not be an ideal treatment method for larger aneurysms. In this case, a Flow Diverter Stent is introduced into the brain. Instead of blocking the aneurysm, the blood flowing through it is diverted outside, towards the normal part of the artery. This keeps the aneurysm from filling with blood, and limits the chances of rupture.

Why choose Zydus?

In addition to highly skilled medical experts, we are equipped with state of the art infrastructure and top technology - including a facility to perform 3D Brain Angiography procedure, which is unique to the state. For us, patient care is of utmost priority.

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Zydus Hospitals Road,
Nr. Sola Bridge, S.G. Highway,
Ahmedabad - 380054,
Gujarat, India.